Egypt, a nation connecting upper east Africa with the Middle East, dates to the age of the pharaohs. Centuries old landmarks sit along the fruitful Nile River Valley, including Giza's goliath Pyramids and Great Sphinx just as Luxor's symbolic representation lined Karnak Temple and Valley of the Kings tombs. The capital, Cairo, is home to Ottoman tourist spots like Muhammad Ali Mosque and the Egyptian Museum, a trove of ancient pieces.